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eigenvalue; Laplacian index; algebraic connectivity; semi-regular graph; regular graph; Hamiltonian graph; planar graph
Let $G$ be a connected simple graph on $n$ vertices. The Laplacian index of $G$, namely, the greatest Laplacian eigenvalue of $G$, is well known to be bounded above by $n$. In this paper, we give structural characterizations for graphs $G$ with the largest Laplacian index $n$. Regular graphs, Hamiltonian graphs and planar graphs with the largest Laplacian index are investigated. We present a necessary and sufficient condition on $n$ and $k$ for the existence of a $k$-regular graph $G$ of order $n$ with the largest Laplacian index $n$. We prove that for a graph $G$ of order $n \geq 3$ with the largest Laplacian index $n$, $G$ is Hamiltonian if $G$ is regular or its maximum vertex degree is $\triangle (G)=n/2$. Moreover, we obtain some useful inequalities concerning the Laplacian index and the algebraic connectivity which produce miscellaneous related results.
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