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Keywords:
congruence; prime powers; Lucas' theorem; Wolstenholme prime; set $W(k,r)$
Summary:
In the paper we discuss the following type congruences: $$\biggl ({np^k\atop mp^k}\biggr ) \equiv \left (m \atop n\right ) \pmod {p^r},$$ where $p$ is a prime, $n$, $m$, $k$ and $r$ are various positive integers with $n\ge m\ge 1$, $k\ge 1$ and $r\ge 1$. Given positive integers $k$ and $r$, denote by $W(k,r)$ the set of all primes $p$ such that the above congruence holds for every pair of integers $n\ge m\ge 1$. Using Ljunggren's and Jacobsthal's type congruences, we establish several characterizations of sets $W(k,r)$ and inclusion relations between them for various values $k$ and $r$. In particular, we prove that $W(k+i,r)=W(k-1,r)$ for all $k\ge 2$, $i\ge 0$ and $3\le r\le 3k$, and $W(k,r)=W(1,r)$ for all $3\le r\le 6$ and $k\ge 2$. We also noticed that some of these properties may be used for computational purposes related to congruences given above.
References:
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