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2-factor; claw-free graph; line graph; $N^{2}$-locally connected
Let $G=(V(G),E(G))$ be a graph. Gould and Hynds (1999) showed a well-known characterization of $G$ by its line graph $L(G)$ that has a 2-factor. In this paper, by defining two operations, we present a characterization for a graph $G$ to have a 2-factor in its line graph $L(G).$ A graph $G$ is called $N^{2}$-locally connected if for every vertex $x\in V(G),$ $G[\{y\in V(G)\; 1\leq {\rm dist}_{G}(x,y)\leq 2\}]$ is connected. By applying the new characterization, we prove that every claw-free graph in which every edge lies on a cycle of length at most five and in which every vertex of degree two that lies on a triangle has two $N^{2}$-locally connected adjacent neighbors, has a $2$-factor. This result generalizes the previous results in papers: Li, Liu (1995) and Tian, Xiong, Niu (2012), and is the best possible.
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