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Keywords:
Gaussian integer; Fermat test; pseudoprime
Summary:
The structure of the group $(\mathbb {Z}/n\mathbb {Z})^\star $ and Fermat's little theorem are the basis for some of the best-known primality testing algorithms. Many related concepts arise: Euler's totient function and Carmichael's lambda function, Fermat pseudoprimes, Carmichael and cyclic numbers, Lehmer's totient problem, Giuga's conjecture, etc. In this paper, we present and study analogues to some of the previous concepts arising when we consider the underlying group $\mathcal {G}_n:=\{a+b{\rm i}\in \mathbb {Z}[{\rm i}]/n\mathbb {Z}[{\rm i}]\colon a^2+b^2\equiv 1\pmod n\}$. In particular, we characterize Gaussian Carmichael numbers via a Korselt's criterion and present their relation with Gaussian cyclic numbers. Finally, we present the relation between Gaussian Carmichael number and 1-Williams numbers for numbers $n \equiv 3\pmod 4$. There are also no known composite numbers less than $10^{18}$ in this family that are both pseudoprime to base $1+2{\rm i}$ and 2-pseudoprime.
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