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iterative functional equation; invariant curves; monotone solutions
We consider the functional equation $f(xf(x))=\varphi (f(x))$ where $\varphi \: J\rightarrow J$ is a given increasing homeomorphism of an open interval $J\subset (0,\infty )$ and $f\:(0,\infty )\rightarrow J$ is an unknown continuous function. In a previous paper we proved that no continuous solution can cross the line $y=p$ where $p$ is a fixed point of $\varphi $, with a possible exception for $p=1$. The range of any non-constant continuous solution is an interval whose end-points are fixed by $\varphi $ and which contains in its interior no fixed point except for $1$. We also gave a characterization of the class of continuous monotone solutions and proved a sufficient condition for any continuous function to be monotone. In the present paper we give a characterization of the equations (or equivalently, of the functions $\varphi $) which have all continuous solutions monotone. In particular, all continuous solutions are monotone if either (i) 1 is an end-point of $J$ and $J$ contains no fixed point of $\varphi $, or (ii) $1\in J$ and $J$ contains no fixed points different from 1.
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