low-energy buildings; thermal transfer; classical thermodynamics; computational simulation
European and Czech directives and technical standards, approved in several last years, force substantial changes in thermal behaviour of all buildings, including new and reconstructed one- or more-family houses, block of fl
ats, etc., especially radical decrease of their energy requirements. This stimulates the development of advanced materials, structures and technologies. Since no reliable experience with their design is available, robust and non-expensive computational simulation approaches, compatible with principles of classical thermodynamics, are needed. This paper demonstrates the impact of such requirements on the development of relevant computational algorithms, with the accent on the conception of a building as a thermal system, at various generality levels of analysis of its particular elements and subsystems.