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iteration digraph; height; Carmichael lambda function; fixed point; regular digraph
A power digraph, denoted by $G(n,k)$, is a directed graph with $\mathbb Z_{n}=\{0,1,\dots ,n-1\}$ as the set of vertices and $E=\{(a,b)\colon a^{k}\equiv b\pmod n\}$ as the edge set. In this paper we extend the work done by Lawrence Somer and Michal Křížek: On a connection of number theory with graph theory, Czech. Math. J. 54 (2004), 465–485, and Lawrence Somer and Michal Křížek: Structure of digraphs associated with quadratic congruences with composite moduli, Discrete Math. 306 (2006), 2174–2185. The heights of the vertices and the components of $G(n,k)$ for $n\geq 1$ and $k\geq 2$ are determined. We also find an expression for the number of vertices at a specific height. Finally, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on $n$ such that each vertex of indegree $0$ of a certain subdigraph of $G(n,k)$ is at height $q\geq 1$.
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