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finite model theory; non-finite axiomatizability; finite axiomatizability; finite bipartite graphs; finite simple group; join-irreducible congruence; congruence lattice; slim semimodular lattice; finite propositional logic; first-order inexpressibility; first-order language
We give a new proof of the fact that finite bipartite graphs cannot be axiomatized by finitely many first-order sentences among finite graphs. (This fact is a consequence of a general theorem proved by L. Ham and M. Jackson, and the counterpart of this fact for all bipartite graphs in the class of all graphs is a well-known consequence of the compactness theorem.) Also, to exemplify that our method is applicable in various fields of mathematics, we prove that neither finite simple groups, nor the ordered sets of join-irreducible congruences of slim semimodular lattices can be described by finitely many axioms in the class of finite structures. Since a 2007 result of G. Grätzer and E. Knapp, slim semimodular lattices have constituted the most intensively studied part of lattice theory and they have already led to results even in group theory and geometry. In addition to the non-axiomatizability results mentioned above, we present a new property, called Decomposable Cyclic Elements Property, of the congruence lattices of slim semimodular lattices.
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