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Keywords:
congruence; prime power; Wolstenholme prime; Wolstenholme's theorem; Bernoulli number
Summary:
A prime $p$ is said to be a Wolstenholme prime if it satisfies the congruence ${2p-1\choose p-1} \equiv 1 \pmod {p^4}$. For such a prime $p$, we establish an expression for ${2p-1\choose p-1}\pmod {p^8}$ given in terms of the sums $R_i:=\sum _{k=1}^{p-1}1/k^i$ ($i=1,2,3,4,5,6)$. Further, the expression in this congruence is reduced in terms of the sums $R_i$ ($i=1,3,4,5$). Using this congruence, we prove that for any Wolstenholme prime $p$ we have $$ \left ({2p-1\atop p-1}\right ) \equiv 1 -2p \sum _{k=1}^{p-1}\frac {1}{k} -2p^2\sum _{k=1}^{p-1}\frac {1}{k^2}\pmod {p^7}. $$ Moreover, using a recent result of the author, we prove that a prime $p$ satisfying the above congruence must necessarily be a Wolstenholme prime. Furthermore, applying a technique of Helou and Terjanian, the above congruence is given as an expression involving the Bernoulli numbers.
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